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The two leftmost columns represent impact force (in Newtons) for sled test crashes. The two baseline measurements (Baseline 1 and Baseline 2) were recorded on crash-test dummies wearing seat belts but no head and neck restraints. The three devices tested--the original Hutchens Device, the HANS Device and the improved Safety Solutions unit--show the benefits of restraints by how much force they take away from the vital head/neck area. Note the line just above the 4000 level on the graph. Anything above that line in terms of measured force will cause some kind of head or neck injury. Anything over 8,000 Newtons is considered in the lethal range.