The process is known as a "green" process. Nothing toxic is emitted from the chambers, with only water vapor and carbon dioxide expelled.

Advantages Casidiam(r) changes the surface properties of the metals to allow greater wear, eliminate galling, and extend the life. This is accomplished through high hardness and low friction. The lubrication properties are evident in self-lubricating areas such as wristpins. "Casidiam(r) wears as a graphite, so it's self-lubricating," explains Barr.

The application amount is minute. Casidiam(r) is produced in 2 to 4 microns, which is equivalent to 80- to 160-millionths of an inch, depending upon the application. With such a small amount of material, the dimensional changes of the parts are nonexistent.

Another advantage is the uniform thickness over three-dimensional components. Casidiam(r) will coat over sharp edges such as 90-degree breaks. It will withstand high contact stress with no delamination. It'll withstand high Hertzian levels, broad scuffing, and fretting stress, not high-point load stress. That is, it's highly elastic, not highly plastic.

Further advantages include no changes to the metallurgical properties of the substrate material, maintaining the finish even on polished surfaces.

With respect to friction, increased testing has shown the coefficient of friction to be favorable. The coefficient of friction was lowered 45 percent on steel. The difference was greater with titanium as results showed a 75 percent reduction.

Casidiam(r) can be used as a replacement for Teflon(r). Since Teflon(r) is actually a liquid (much like glass is a liquid), it will move and create areas of coarseness, which would not occur with Casidiam(r). It can pick up impurities that embed into Teflon(r) and turn it into a scrubber.

Casidiam(r) is highly flexible. It has been tested on aluminum foil and held its ground when the foil was flexed and crumpled repeatedly.

Uses of Casidiam(r) Moving parts stand to gain the greatest benefit by virtue of the superior performance in the area of friction. "The best performance occurs when the substrate is as hard as possible," adds Barr. "It sticks and performs better on a surface with a better finish. Parts manufacturers need to have the best finish. This is why these parts can withstand the 8,000- to 10,000-rpm demands that they can see. It starts with quality materials, quality finish, and then concludes with Casidiam(r).

"We're not a parts manufacturer. We're not engine builders. In order for us to do this right, we need to plug into those worlds and work with those people. They know what's going on and what's needed, so we want to work closely with them both."

Some of the racing rules have sent parts makers and engine builders looking for this type of technology. "The one engine rule (in NASCAR) has prompted teams to look at the parts that they used to think were disposable," continues Barr. "Now they have to run those engines as much as 700 miles, and they need the parts to last."

On a production basis, parts that are going to be coated must be new and unused. The process will be less effective if the part has seen any use. Casidiam(r) can be applied if contaminants are removed through bead-blasting or a similar process. Residues from any heat-treating process must be removed from the surface. Also, oxidation (rust) can prevent Casidiam(r) from adhering to a substrate. Residuals from the polishing process also should be taken off. It is best to contact Anatech before considering Casidiam(r) over another coating.

Diamonds are Forever Casidiam(r) is actually a hard carbon. "There is no diamond in it," says Barr. "The properties are diamond-like, meaning it is very, very hard." There is the perception that diamonds are the hardest form of carbon, so this is how the hardness is best explained.